Fasahohi 5 da suka Sauya Duniya Tsakanin 1876 Zuwa 2021

Daga 1876 zuwa bara

Tsakanin wadannan shekaru ne aka samu kirkire-kirkiren da suka sauya tsari da gudanuwar duniya zuwa yanayin da take a yau. Za mu dubi guda 10 daga cikinsu.

Bayan wannan sharhi, mai karatu zai fahimci lallai bunkasa da ci gaban duniya a fannin kimiyya da fasahar sadarwa ba abu ba ne na dare daya ba.

Ga 10 daga cikin wadannan manyan fasahohi da suka yi tasiri wajen sauya duniyarmu a yau:

Fasahar Tangaraho

Wannan fasaha ta samo asali ne a 1876, kuma wanda ya kirkiro ta shi ne shahararren masanin kimiyyar nan mai suna: Aledander Graham.

Ya samar da wannan fasaha ce sa’ar da duniyar Turai ke dogaro da fasahar Telegiram (Telegram).

Tun sannan ake ta inganta wannan fasaha ta tangaraho, har zuwa lokacin da tsarin bincike a fannin ya fara sauyawa, bayan game kasashen duniya da wannan na’ura ta wayar tarho.

Duk da cewa fasahar wayar salula na kan maye gurbin fasahar tarho, a tabbace yake cewa wannan fasahar ce asalin ci gaba a fannin sadarwa na zamani.

Fasahar Lantarki

A 1879, bayan kirkira da gwajin fasahar kwan lantarki, Thomas Edison ya nemi Hukumar Sadarwa ta kasar Amurka ta yi masa rajistar wannan fasaha don tabbatar da hakkin mallaka gare shi.

Bayan samun rajista, a 1880 aka fara amfani da kwan lantarki, wanda ke samuwa ta hanyar dumin makamashin lantarki. Wannan shi ake kira: “Incandescent Light.”

Daga nan kamfanonin samar da wutar lantarki suka ci gaba da samar da nau’o’i daban-daban na wannan fasaha.

Ya zuwa karshen bara, an kiyasta cewa akwai wutar lantarki na kan titi (Street lights) sama da miliyan 304 a duniya.

Sannan a kasar Amurka kadai ana da kwan lantarki masu rai guda biliyan 5.

A duk shekara ana sayar da kwan lantarki na zamani guda biliyan biyu da rabi.

A halin yanzu kusan kowace kasa da biranen duniya, wutar lantarki ta game ko’ina.

Fasahar Talabijin

An samar da wannan na’ura ce a 1927. A lokacin fasahar talabijin na dauke da launin fari da baki (Monochrome) ne. Daga baya ne kamfanoni suka ci gaba da inganta wannan nau’in fasaha.

A 1997 Kamfanin Fujitsu ya samar da talabijin nau’in Plasma, wanda ya sha bamban wajen siffa da kama da kuma inganci. A halin yanzu an samar da nau’o’in LCD da kuma OLED, wadanda duk masu shafaffiyar fuska ne kuma masu dauke da nau’in sinadaran da suka sha bamban da na baya.

An kiyasta cewa akwai talabijin da yawansu ya kai kashi 89 a gidajen da ke duniya.

Sannan kashi 67 na mutanen duniya na kallon talabijin, duk da cewa alkaluma sun nuna cewa kerawa da sayar da akwatin talabijn ya fara raguwa sosai a duniya.

Kasashen da suka fi kowace kasa yawan tashoshin talabijin a duniya su ne; Rasha da China da kuma Nahiyar Turai.

Fasahar talabijin ta taimaka matuka wajen bunkasa fannin sadarwa a duniya.

Fasahar Kwamfuta

Nau’in kwamfuta, a bisa kiyasin zamanin yau, ya samo asali ne a 1977, sa’ar da Kamfanin Apple ya kera kwamfutarsa ta farko nau’in Apple II, mai dauke da manhajar lissafi na farko mai suna: “BicsCalc.” Cikin 1982 sai ga Kamfanin IBM ya samar da sabuwar kwamfuta mai suna IBM PC.

Daga nan sai kamfanonin kera kwamfuta suka yawaita, inda aka ci gaba da inganta fasahar har zuwa wannan lokaci da muke ciki.

A shekarar 2020 an sayar da kwamfutoci sama da miliyan 275. A yayin aka samu kari kan haka a bara, inda aka sayar da kwamfutoci sama da miliyan 277, musamman nau’in Laptop.

An kuma kiyasta ce akwai kwamfutoci sama da biliyan 2 a duniya a yau, wadanda ake amfani da su.

Kamfanonin da suka yi fice wajen kerawa da sayar da kwamfuta su ne: Lenovo, HP da kuma Dell.

Bayan wayar tangaraho, ba a samu fasahar da ta sauya alkiblar rayuwa wajen sadarwa da yaduwar ilimi irin fasahar kwamfuta ba.

Fasahar GPS

Wannan fasaha ta samo asali ne a 1973, kuma ta fara game duniya ne daga 1995, lokacin da kasashen Yammacin duniya suka rungume ta don sauya alkiblar rayuwa.

Kalmar GPS na nufin “Global Positioning System” ce, a warware. Fasaha ce da ke tattaro bayanai ta hanyar tauraron dan Adam da aka cilla cikin sararin samaniya, don ganowa da tantance bigiren abubuwa da ke duniya.

Amurka ce ta samar da wannan fasaha, kuma hukumar sojin saman kasar ce ke kula da habaka fasahar, don cin gajiyarta. Ta amfani da wannan fasaha ce aka gina manhajojin gano bigire a wayoyin salula, wato: “Geolocation Apps” da manhajar taswirar duniya, “Map Apps.”

Bayan haka zuwa karshen bara akwai taurarin dan Adam 77 da wannan fasaha ta GPS ke amfani da su wajen karbar bayanai da sarrafa su.

Kuma a duk shekara an kiyasta cewa gwamnatin Amurka kan kashe Dala miliyan 750 wajen kula da wannan fasaha ta taurarin dan Adam da ke cilla mata bayanai.

Bayan GPS, akwai fasahar gano bigire mai suna GLONASS, wanda Tarayyar Turai (European Union) ta samar kuma take lura da shi.

Samuwar wannan fasaha da sauran irinta, ta taimaka matuka wajen bunkasa tsarin sadarwa a duniya.

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